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Automated instrumentation and control system present situation and development trend

The core clew: although instrumentation new product launch slows down, but the automated instrument technology development constantly, instrument manufacturer in new technology development is not high, but the enthusiasm of development of automation technology of instrument users increasingly high enthusiasm. Recently, in information technology into, instrument security technology, wireless communication technology and so on various aspects have remarkable development. Another new product for the slow, the development of instrument brings opportunities. Domestic instrument to the healthy development of the industry in the general trend and the 2006-2007 instrument science and technology development report introduces not the big change, so can also think this report is a complement to it.

A, industrial automation instrument and control system of the basic situation


Entering the 21st century, China's rapid development of manufacturing, pull on instrumentation and control system in China, the demand of large project USES new automated instrument and control system has the advanced level in the world advanced level. The traditional manufacturing industry in developed countries has been brilliant period, with the instrumentation naturally slow growth. The development of industrial automation instrument in emerging market price of hot issues from two aspects, one is double-team instrument manufacturer of emerging market of product price sensitivity high user, 2 is there can often find very cheap, thus to stimulate multinational companies spend big cost to develop a new instrument.


Nearly 10 years of development of automation instrument technology is an important field of fieldbus technology development, although has accomplished remarkable achievements, but in general application in the transmission. Alternative simulation Actually the fieldbus is not only the change of signal system, it is the information provided for controlling technology. Users of information system (control bottom, diagnosis and management of reforming the fieldbus technology promotion is the primary motivation. In recent years the fieldbus in equipment asset management, predictive diagnostics and stable operation, etc, were exhumed potentials begin to appear the development prospect extremely.

But based on fieldbus network control and distributed intelligent technology, only to both in theory and in practice are not significant breakthrough and fieldbus speed bottlenecks in the complicated control: and rapid response aspects as traditional instruments: sometimes years of fieldbus struggle has no winners in the manufacturers and users of common sense, a huge drain on each enterprise development of resources.


The international trend reflected instrumentation products with several important window: ISAEXPO Miconix, such as a representative of the international exhibition on Readers' meter, ChoiceAward (Readers' choice awards) as a representative of the awards. In recent three years, the readers' choice awards winning products have changed little. This year, focusing on the development of industrial automation instrument meter application in.


The development trend of the change is natural, digital, intelligent instrument and system after nearly 10 years of development, has accumulated in the application of some problems, many of the intelligent instrument design innovation function also is not fully applications. Has the following main problems.


(1) digital instrument and the information system security and confidentiality


(2) micro process and software reliability problems.


(3) confidentiality, safety and reliability of communication.


(4) intelligent instrument in operation and control system is the interaction and how to interact.


(5) intelligent instrument provides more than analog instrument information and how to make full use of these information.


(6) many intelligent instrument interoperable problem.


(7) instrument and the fault diagnosis system and fault diagnosis information interoperable, etc.


The problem is due to the digital and network, and not existing technology can solve these problems, only optional solutions, and uniform solution is the most effective. And how is currently working on.


Although instrumentation new product launch, but slowing of automated instrument technology development constantly, instrument manufacturer in new technology development is not high, but the enthusiasm of development of automation technology of instrument users increasingly high enthusiasm. Recently, in information technology into, instrument security technology, wireless communication technology and so on various aspects have remarkable development. Another new product for the slow, the development of instrument brings opportunities. Domestic instrument to the healthy development of the industry in the general trend and the 2006-2007 instrument science and technology development report introduces not the big change, so can also think this report is a complement to it.


ISAEXPO2008 six major concerns are: the information security, process automation, environment, and quality control, wireless and Internet communication and integration. In fact, including the Miconix exhibition of the world's major instrument exhibition, theme in this. This reflects the last six aspects of the main instrumentation development trends. Six aspects of information security and process automation and environmental control is mainly composed of instrumentation field outside the technology, it is not part of the report as the key.


China's investment network of the 2009-2012 China instrument industry investment analysis and forecast report, in the foreground of China in the introduction of this instrument is properly expressed domestic instrumentation field development, it is this: "though China instrument industry has been developed, but can't satisfy the national economy, science research, national defense construction and social aspects of increasing demand. China instrumentation products, most of the technical level, and cheap belongs to the reliability and stability of key index to meet all requirements. Therefore has a long-term planning, China should do to revitalize measurement control and instrumentation industry as a systems engineering, from affecting the measurement control and instrumentation industry's main aspects, including government, business, education, scientific research and social environment in the strategic measures for coordinated and implement it carefully.


Second, industrial automation instrument and control system development trend


(a) instrumentation and the enterprise's informatization


The development of information technology to bring two aspects of automated instrument, hand information technology and instrumentation, on talent development climax, many experienced instrument workers to the IT industry in recent years, this is also the reason product slows meter, On the other hand instrumentation borrowed TI industry some mature technology and products, accelerate the pace of information.


Informationization is the development trend of The Times, industrial automation instrument technology including the information collection, information processing and information process, so the application of this technology in industrial automation instrument when an important branch of information technology. The so-called "integration" is actually the enterprise information integration and integration of information explosion, the so-called "won the" information processing and application of over, and the ability to get the application information is an obstacle of unity. How to improve the ability to handle and application of information is current theme.


Information will real-world objects (including raw materials, the entity equipment, product, control system, instruments, etc.), production processes (including manufacturing method, process, etc.). Enterprise management (including procurement, sales, logistics, etc.) use computer to identify and handle 0 and 1, then describe by computer operations and processing, and finally the result of the treatment effect again to the real world.


Informationization is the premise of real world, and the world will be the relationship between real things into 0 and 1, cannot do this step informatization is impossible. This step is to establish information model reality.


Information is a simplified model with the information. According to certain rules for the things done abstract describe.


The simplified model is defined to include information, rules and abstraction, the three elements of the diversity of the three elements of information model may decide to establish information model of diversification, including the process of realizing the unity of the diversity and to overcome. Industrial automation instrument and system information model of target is: to describe information of unequivocal manner, with convenient exchange as the basic orientation, finally realizes the extensive interoperability.


In September, 2006, in Berlin, Germany IEC100 anniversary celebration activities of the automation, IFAC BBS Diedrich expert professor became titled "the factory automation information model, this paper reports the control level, different stages of different types, different information, information processing techniques and tools.


Set up information model work is an automated instrument field work, the basic information of the expression is unified, only to include: (1) establish rules of describing things, 2 the design rule of food, model.


Build description of rules is a multifarious research work, because of different cultural background, with different religious beliefs, and describe the different objects, detailed on the different degree of the scheme, there are many, what we need is the current information processing capability and can be adapted to the public widely accepted, this scheme often end in the form of international standard. In making these two aspects of international standard has significant progress.


According to the rules describe something attributes of the object can be simplified into three categories:


Description: (1) of information model. Described as raw materials, components and production control system with device, instrument production, production process and the final products, intermediate state information model, this type of model to describe the basic attributes of the object, IEC361987 is typical of industrial process of measurement and control process equipment in the directory data structure and elements IEC61360 standard and with series of related electronic component classification scheme standard data element type series standard.


(2) to describe things (especially the quantitative relationship between the model). The important role of information is optimized, the optimization of the things is to understand the condition of quantitative relationship (. This model is used to form the mathematical model. This model is very often targeted unified widely model, it is less international standard form.


(3) describe objects process information model. If the production process, the management process is IEC62264 representative, enterprise system integration series standard.


In the establishment and application of automated instrument information model, Chinese universities and research institutes have research. But didn't the work location information to promote industrialization, has the important basis of national or trade aspect, comprehensive system planning and mass work.


TC159 in the industrial automation system and integrated standardization technical committee and TC124 national industrial process measurement and control standardization technical committee in tracking and adopt international standards did a lot of work, in addition to join the international standard of sending experts working in the international standard specifies directly, also timely information model standards will be converted to national standard. With the establishment of the model and method of standard information needed to do behind the studio: propaganda, implement, learning these techniques, with each of these methods can be established with the library interoperability and application of these information service in the enterprise automation.


Because information model for domestic enterprises and engineer or new things, and work in these early is quite complex, the most important is the Chinese manufacturing enterprise informationization is less offered in the demand, so in this area is relatively backward, the urgent need to pay attention to.


(2) instrumentation project global information and the whole life cycle of information integration


The overall and the whole life cycle of information integration is actually instrumentation systematic can interoperability. But the interoperability is hierarchical, most basic is the process control machine control system, namely, interoperability and field instruments surface from interoperable, up layer is control system maintenance and production equipment, interoperable diagnostic information in enterprise management information is higher layer of customer operations. To realize the integration of global informationization at least interoperable global information.


Different levels of realizing interoperable technology and methods is not the same. In the control system and the major field instruments, institutionalization: kung fu EDDL (electronic equipment description language), FDT/DTM (site equipment/equipment type manager), OPCUA (original OleforProcessControl control, process control and embedded object with links to Productivity&Collaboration, Openness, is open, productivity and cooperation; enterprise management is part with MES (manufacturing execution system). Global information technology integration at least make enterprises to exchange information between each layer of the disabled.


Automation systems engineer project has been completed and put into from the argument after operation, maintenance, and repair the whole process of each stage has many technical documents, each phase of the documents and have strong correlation, and these documents are now in binary form the computer. After each stage adopts unity with the information model, then the next stage of the relative documents on stage can have very good inheritance. For example, in the engineering design phase will prepare control logic configuration diagram, if use a unified information model, then to drive debug stage can directly use the figure of system configuration. Total life cycle of information system integration is to realize the dough stage between interoperable, such information integration scheme is provided by the users of the instrument. Due to the user instrument enterprise production process, close to the application, some users to many of the application of automated instrument, made some group standards. Now they gradually transformed into these groups standard, national or international standard European standards, such as IEC61242 process control engineering methods of P&I figure and P&ID, PCE - CAE tools and data exchange between tools and some parts of the IEC61987, pipeline engineering and P&I (instrumentation devices; P&ID, pipelines and instrumentation systems; PCE, process control engineering, CAE, computer aided engineering).


Automated instrumentation engineering projects, the whole life cycle of the global information integrated starter-generator fires a lengthy process, IEC62424 years of development of standard is an important symbol.


China has been research institute in tracking the overall situation, the total life cycle of information integration technology development direction, when the standard documents submitted by the international organization for standardization technology group, TC124 will soon add drafting group arrangement, the experts have been tracking for many years. While TC124 also published in the international standard will be converted to national standard.


The whole life cycle of information integration of our engineers are concept, although some new project can be used for the whole life cycle of information integration tools InTools software, but people still only at some stage of life will be.


China on instrumentation system operation process in the information integration do is not enough, timely with smart fieldbus instruments, data communications only on the transfer function of replacement. This case is the reason, on the one hand, the enterprise information needs of users is urgent, On the other hand we lack conforms to China's actual situation, effective industries of informatization integration software. Instrumentation workers to know what you can do enough information to users, and information, what good does not know how to carry out more. These factors influenced the development of informationization integration technology.


Somebody thinks to digital and network to represent the development of intelligent instruments are three stages: the first stage is the digitized smart fieldbus instruments, the key is to substitute simulation instrumentation installation cost, improve play saving effect of performance instrumentation, The second stage is the global information engineering and instrument and the whole life cycle of information integration, the key is to improve the information, the project management and operation benefit. The third stage is wireless communication instruments for the important characteristics, the so-called "omnipresent measurement, the omnipresent network, ubiquitous computing", true of networked control, the key is to improve the efficiency of enterprises. Three phase target quite great, can saying is the 21st century instrumentation goal. At present the first stage of the work has been comprehensively launched and the second stage of the work of the third stage, start work are explored.


(3) function


Security is a very broad topics in this field, the automated instrument focused mainly on security function. IEC61508 electrical/electronic/section programming system function of electronic safety related safety series international standards in early 1998, started in 2003 and has published IEC61511 process instrumentation security system function safety series of international standards. China has published by these two equivalent series of international standard GB/T20438 electrical/electronic/section programming system function of electronic safety related safety and GB/T21109 process instrumentation security system function.


Two important development is the function of security, a security certification by the instrument function of the market. The instrument has a great influence on the market, so not only use safety instrumentation function in safety requirements of system, the function of security certification is confirmed the reliability of quantitative instruments, in order to win the competition advantage position, virtually all instrument manufacturers will conduct security research. Function


Since the 20th century in the reliability engineering research, improve the quality of the instrument. But because the reliability data are obtained by manufacturing enterprises to users themselves, therefore the credibility of low reliability of only a few enterprises will be published quantitative data. So the reliability of users is critical, vague, people are more willing to believe that brand.


The 20th century to the reliability engineering research instrument optical, mechanical, electronic component reliability design and processing has won recognized maturity framework. But the current meter almost microprocessor, and embedded software reliability and the computer program is still not accepted, the method of quantitative data. Here is the most easily confused is: we all know the Windows operating system error, and most of our automated instrumentation system software running on Windows environment is evil, so we can believe that there will be more than automation system reliability of Windows better? The function of software reliability and safety research studies have provided some, such as adding bottom program fault-tolerant etc, redundancy, processing method, we can not reliable Windows on the automation system reliability.


In IEC61508 and IEC61511, embedded procedures and computer software reliability and safety assessment method, and provides some more schools. But these are principles, when implementing the appraisal relies heavily on experience and level design and assessment is far from enough, these needs to various aspects of embedded computer program and increase the reliability of the software. From the perspective of programming language, IEC61508-3 electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety related to the function of the system safety, part 3: software requirements for all variable language (FVL, such as C, C + +, assembly language) in security applications and embedded software, firmware, operating system, the principle of the standard level do, To limited variable language (LVL, such as the PLCopen IEC61131-3) in safety organization safety extended application level standard, in IEC standard and the corresponding standard ISA ISA84 process instrumentation security system safety and related technical report function in a particular and complement, though it is accepted, uniform solution, but there are enough to make the enterprise can carry on the function of the development and design of safety.


Functions have been published, safety standard, although the scope of the functions of security research in deep and expand. One of the communication security research, the function of research has been partly reflect in some field


In many research institutes in the year of the research work, the function of security for safety requirements include: high user institutions, such as petroleum, chemical, pharmaceutical, the organization and how to determine the function of security requirements. They use a risk assessment technique, management and credibility HAZOP (and/OperabilityStudy to/with reliability research, risk analysis method, etc.) for the target function safety requirements. Quantitative


The implementation of the two countries established propaganda, training function safety standards of engineers. While some agencies in the project and instrumentation products of safety evaluation function.


Some instrument factory began to develop the high reliability of safety instrumentation products function. Individual enterprise to the user of the product authentication is better, they will products to the international certification authority.

In general, though China's innovation function safety research achievements, but also has the function of security in domestic, activities are deeply.

(4) system maintenance and instrumentation diagnosis

Based on the requirement of safety and quality of enterprises, system maintenance and diagnostic instrument manufacturers and users, the various aspects of attention. The system maintenance and instrumentation diagnosis is divided into four levels: the production process of diagnosis, production equipment of diagnosis, automation control system of diagnosis, and the diagnosis of field instruments.

Production process in the diagnosis of automated instrument does not belong to the category, but the diagnostic information exchange involves instrumentation systems. Foreign meter user established a user organizations -- and/anOperations/MIMOSA (MaintenanceInformationOpenSystemsAlliance, operation and maintenance of information open system alliance). The organization's mission is to develop and encourage enterprises to O&M Operations (in Maintenance and / /, operation and Maintenance) and there CollaborativeAssetLifecycleManagement (lifecycle management, assets using open information cooperation). It provides a series of relevant information. Overall, the general CommonConceptualObjectModel CCOM (MIMOSA object model) is the basis of all standard, and CommonRelationalInformationSchema CRIS (gm) provide related information model to store the enterprise operation and management information. It also provides the metadata repository and using XML and reference standard SQL series information exchange. This organization has established cooperation with the OPC, OpenP&M (OpenOperations/Maintenance/open operation, and to maintain) tissue. They set the standard language based information industries, MIMOSA provide information related to asset management standard OPC, provide data transmission standard drink.

According to the monitoring and diagnosis of production equipment instrument system is the new product in the market. Mainly used for some typical production equipment (such as rotating machinery, fluid pipelines) monitoring and diagnosis. These systems include the use of vibration measurement, the measurement, infrared, ultrasonic scanning and normal temperature and pressure measurement information of monitoring by statistic analysis and spectrum analysis and pattern recognition, data mining analysis of expert system, such that the diagnosis of equipment. Typical products have office equipment company CSI state management system.

Automatic control system of diagnosis is usually in the control system of a module equipment management software for a function or control system itself, and the expression of real-time diagnosis and in predictive maintenance. Now his instrumentation multinationals almost all have their own products, such as the office of the company (AMS), Siemens asset management system of the company product data management (PDM) (process equipment management), which lists. Automatic control system diagnostic products at develops fast, function and performance unceasing enhancement, Now the production equipment of monitoring and diagnosis of automation control system itself is often in the same platform. In order to improve the level of interoperability, in recent years, Siemens company and company office OPC etc. Several promising cooperation propulsion interoperability technology.

The diagnosis of field instruments with several layers of maintenance, diagnosis in methods have very big distinction. First, the method is through the sensors to collect information, through various means of realizing diagnosis analysis. Site instrument itself, small volume, low power consumption can be used to diagnose the information resource rarely, Secondly, the instrument of diagnosis results show that often with control system software or handheld controller, thus its diagnosis process often field instruments and the other end of the interactive, to supplement their resources.

The diagnosis is difficult field instruments, HART foundation "HART diagnosis guide (draft) will be divided into 3: maintenance maintenance requirements (needs), fault has already exceeded (instrument maintenance maintenance cycle), suggest to maintain (instrument maintenance cycle). While maintaining cycle by intelligent instrument meter or loss according to the fixed time.

Our major equipment maintenance and diagnostic research for many years of history, the typical equipment in rotating machinery have good results and successful application, has two learned in this aspect gathered a group of power: China vibration fault diagnosis of engineering specialty committee and the Chinese automation technology process to fault diagnosis and safety technical committee. In automatic control system of diagnosis although some studies, but application is less, in measurement instrument and the implementation of the diagnosis, whether in more weak diagnosis and maintenance of theoretical research and practical aspects of development or the international level. Most of the instruments in domestic and predictive maintenance fault diagnosis are blank.

Overseas in recent years maintenance and diagnosis of published papers and patents, reflecting the content of the project in foreign enterprises in China, is also JiQiZhiZhui now too late.

(5) wireless communication

Wireless technology, industrial automation instrument is rapid development in the field, main performance significantly in the following respects.

(1) technical scheme diversification. Based on WPAN (wireless a domain of the net), based on the wireless local area network (WLAN) scheme based on wireless public network, also have (such as GPRS, CDMA) scheme. Various solutions for certain objects and application in some local advantages.

(2) participants increases rapidly. A school, research institutions, industrial automation instrument enterprise, and some semiconductor manufacturing enterprises and have special technology of small high-tech enterprises.

(3) established the professional organization. Has established a new special organizations, such as the WINA (TheWirelessIndustrialNetworkingAlliance, wireless network alliance), industrial organization also has many old new wireless communication group, such as multiple group, IEEE eu R - Fieldbus project (wireless Fieldbus project), the working group, HART SP100 ISA wireless HART group and Fieldbus wireless group, etc.

(4) launch various wireless demonstration system, measuring instrument, become the global each year prototype of main instrumentation. If a company is in compliance with ISA100.11 of Honeywell OneWireless series, the company is in compliance with the SmartWireless WirelessHART office. Although these products are already in some situations, but the application from the general, a limited amount, Yifa system on a smaller scale, but dozens of nodes. Various for automated instrument enterprise development wireless products various wireless module, and countless provide these modules of the enterprise often is the true owner wireless technology.

Wireless standards for have already started. In 2007 WirelessHART issued standard of Honeywell HART fund company President process system JackBolick published an open letter, make of Honeywell wireless standards with office in differences publicity. Then, all kinds of wireless communication standard solutions are put forward to standardization organization. Besides the former two goals for process control standard, and similar ZigBeePro this not mainly for process control, but always want to process control of standard. Since 2003 ZigBee standard since released 2006 frequent updates: a new version released in 2007, and ZigBee2007 released, including two feature set ZigBeePro --. Industry insiders out of the top 10 years of fieldbus, big companies of provoked dispute but not the obvious advantage of small instrument, gave to the company and company's chance instrument. People want to avoid again wireless standards. Three kinds of technical cooperation is the technical foundation of ISA100.11, because a WirelessHART, ZigBee and the underlying protocols are IEEE802.15.4, and provide chip and communication protocol stack of enterprise often provide these three components, so the technology three technical infiltration inevitable. But the market competition is not the people will transfer, we may have to face and a desert battle lasting orders.

China has entered a wireless communication domain is not late industry. HART foundation was founded in November 2004, to a wireless, and many units before it began to study. In the "11th five-year plan of the state ministry of science and technology: device," 863 "project to industrial wireless communication project powerful support, the education department, science and technology, and before the various funds, the local department for the field also many support.


Based on our ZigBee research unit, so much easier to obtain a technical support sourcing components. Several units joined ISA100 group, is engaged in the research, One group, chongqing university of posts and telecommunications heavy to submit a suggestion. Article 27 a committee ISA100.11 completely accepted and adopted. China's development in WirelessHART truly independent unit is less, because WirelessHART oneself also continues to develop, is now providing technical support is less.

From 2008, at present Miconex exhibition at the scale and level of research will not lose abroad, average level of demonstration system and product. Our research in the field of industrial wireless communication with remarkable achievements of Chinese academy of sciences, shenyang institute of research group headed by automation of research and development of industrial process automation use wireless network WIA - PA became IEC can provide the technical specifications openly (IEC/PAS62601:2008 industrial communication network has fieldbus standard - WIA - PA communication network and communication with WirelessHART stock-in-trade), as well as the international standard.

(6) control network

As a representative of the control in the network technology in our country has been gradually get promotion, the secco project in Shanghai mass adopting field bus, various project adopting field bus has been basically eliminate the psychological barriers. People have fewer can ask ", "and" how to ask more works ". Due to the large in China in recent years, our project using fieldbus instruments in the project scale or in terms of using in the international leading position. But some of the project, although adopted advanced smart fieldbus instruments, but the application level is not high, but is mainly underuse of intelligent instrument can provide information and information service.

In the research and development of control network, China has followed the international trend. Involved in the communication network in IEC industrial almost every team in China, and most experts in international issues in China were put forward one's own standard advice. National standard (GB/T20171-2006 used in industry measurement and control system of the EPA system structure and communication standard gain in 2008 China standard innovation contribution. The EPA has entered into the IEC standard series of multiple standards. EPA series products in multiple too long operation.

In China and abroad in the field of control network in major gap, whether in the fieldbus products field instruments, intelligent products and software system has gap.

In the international development of the network control also entered the level is not high, the stable to achieve high expectations. Here are two technical problems and a non-technical problems.

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